- Core | Reaction Machines
Core Separations specializes in manufacturing a wide range of vital components utilized in CO2 extraction systems. As a prominent leader in the field of supercritical extraction, we maintain the highest standards of quality, safety, and functionality through our production methods and established practices. With more than 20 years of experience in working with supercritical fluids, our extensive knowledge positions us as experts in developing tailored systems for processing diverse natural products
In solvent-free reactions, scCO2 can be utilized to enhance both selectivity and the rate of the reaction. By modulating the pressure and temperature, the characteristics of scCO2 can be adjusted, granting superior control over reaction selectivity and speed. This potentially increases the efficiency of specific reactions and permits superior yields and purities.
The nature of scCO2 also leads to cleaner reactions. As it is a gas at room temperature, scCO2 can be effortlessly removed from the reaction mix by simple depressurization, eliminating the need for additional solvent removal procedures that often involve high temperatures or energy-intensive methods.
Moreover, the use of scCO2 adds to the safety and sustainability of the process. As a non-toxic substance, carbon dioxide ensures a safer reaction environment, making it an environmentally-friendly choice.
Why not read about some of the most common applications below?
Aerogels are one of the most famous examples, using CO2 to form a mesoporous gel structure where the structure is over 98% air filled pores. These porous structures are formed due to scCO2 low surface tension allowing its evaporation without collapsing the porous structure formed. Aerogels have low thermal conductivity and structure density making them an effective light weight insulation – used by NASA to create a thermal blanket to maintain the cryogenic temperatures required by the fuel used in the rockets.
Core Separation’s reaction systems are versatile, configurable for a variety of operations. Whether it’s particle engineering through SAS (supercritical anti solvent), RESS (rapid expansion of supercritical solutions), or GAS techniques, or even reactions utilizing supercritical CO2, our systems are up to the task. They’re also suitable for cleaning, sterilization, and material formulations like aerogels. The potential applications are limitless.
For many applications, a controlled and precise depressurization is crucial to success. The SFX software features a built-in ramp rate, which lets users set the desired depressurization speed in bar/s. This contrasts with other systems that depend on calibrations based on a fixed needle retraction rate. The SFX software proactively manages the depressurization rate to guarantee its consistency throughout the process.
Flow and Pressure Mode
Given the versatility of the Core Separations reaction system, the software comes equipped with both flow and pressure modes. In Pressure mode, the pump is utilized to consistently hold and regulate the reactor’s pressure. During depressurization, the system depends on the ABPR to ensure a steady and accurate flow. Thus, for any requirement, the SFXR systems are adeptly prepared to handle it.
Unique Core Separations Features
Core | Pumps
SFX Control Software
Core | Vessels
Got any questions, just ask!
1. Why use Supercritical CO2 as a solvent in Reaction Chemistry?
2. Can Supercritical CO2 be used of Enzymatic reactions?
3. What is RESS process?
The CO2 Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solutions (RESS) process is a method used to produce fine particles of substances. This method has been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for drug formulation.
The process involves using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) as a solvent. The substance to be formed into particles is dissolved in the scCO2 under high pressure and temperature, creating a supercritical solution. This solution is then allowed to expand rapidly through a small nozzle into a region of lower pressure.
The rapid expansion causes the supercritical solution to become unsaturated, leading to the precipitation of fine particles of the solute. The CO2 then evaporates, leaving behind the fine particles.
One of the major advantages of the RESS process is that it avoids the use of organic solvents, making it an environmentally friendly method for particle production. It's also useful for processing heat-sensitive materials, as the process can be conducted at relatively low temperatures. However, the method does have limitations, such as a relatively low solubility for many substances in scCO2 and the need for high pressures.
4. What is the SAS Process?
5. How do I use Supercritical CO2 to create highly porous material like Aerogels?
6. What is supercritical drying and how does it compare to freeze drying?
Both supercritical drying and freeze drying are designed to remove liquid from a material without causing it to shrink or lose its structure, which is common in conventional drying methods due to the surface tension of the liquid.
Freeze drying involves freezing the material, then reducing the surrounding pressure to allow the frozen water to sublime directly from a solid state to a gas. This process is generally slower than supercritical drying and requires lower temperatures, but it is effective for heat-sensitive substances, such as proteins, pharmaceuticals, and food.
Supercritical drying, on the other hand, is a high-temperature and high-pressure process, which makes it unsuitable for heat-sensitive materials. However, it is faster than freeze drying and can create materials with extremely high porosities, such as aerogels.
Why use Supercritical CO2
Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE), is commonly used to extract compounds from solid botanical materials due to its achievable pressure and low temperature (critical temperature and pressure of 31 °C and 74 bar). It has a number of benefits unique to CO2 over traditional petrochemical derived alternatives.
With a system that has multiple collectors with their own back pressure regulators, the conditions in each separator can be adjusted to achieve a specific density. Selectively precipitating different compounds into each of the separators.
When isolating the extract from a CO2 extraction, it requires depressurisation of the CO2. This involves a phase change from a supercritical fluid into a gas. This ultimate change in density results in the separation of the dissolved compounds from the CO2. The CO2 gas is then able to escape leaving the extract uncontaminated by the extracting fluid.
Unlike other solvent extraction, CO2 is recovered from other industrial processes as a by-product. The renewable and abundant nature of CO2 is one of the most attractive properties when using CO2 as an alternative solvent.
The polarity of the CO2 can be adjusted with the addition of a solvent of higher polarity such as ethanol. Small percentages of more polar solvents can have a significant effect on which components are extracted. It can also help reduce the pressures required to extract components such as polyphenols.
By altering the pressure and temperature alters the CO2 density is tuneable giving CO2 its selective extraction properties.
One of the most powerful aspects of CO2 as a solvent is witnessed when collecting the product from the separator as it reverts to a gas, so leaving your product uncontaminated. We can also re-use the CO2 by re-compressing it.
Learn how our systems work!
We strive to create systems that are user-friendly and efficient, ensuring a seamless experience from straightforward operations to low dead volume pipework. Our systems are designed to deliver exceptional selectivity in CO2 processing and maintain a high standard of extract quality.